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Blockchain technology can accelerate artificial intelligence innovation

Blockchain technology can accelerate artificial intelligence innovation


With the development of blockchain technology today, everyone has realized that there is great potential behind it. Whether preparing for Web 3.0 or using blockchain for online interaction, blockchain technology and artificial intelligence are all moving in a better direction.
Despite this, there is still a long way to go to lead the world. One of the challenges facing these cutting-edge technologies is their cost, which means that they (especially artificial intelligence) can still be used by ...

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Industly News

  • What can anyone use to talk about blockchain?

    What can anyone use to talk about blockchain?


    For many insiders in the technology community, Bitcoin's most powerful place is actually the thing it depends on: the blockchain. So, what exactly is a blockchain? Apart from Bitcoin, what uses does it have?
    What can everyone use to talk about blockchain?
    "Now, many people are asking a question: Is there any dry goods in the blockchain without speculation and investment?"
    Don’t look at the present, Bitcoin's reinvention is endless, and the ups and downs of prices make investors sometimes cheer, sometimes dejected, and has been undoubtedly fired bubbles, but it was not the case: in the first few years, it has followed crime and dark network. The drug trade is ambiguous and cannot enter the mainstream. It was during this period that technical experts and corporate evangelists took the opportunity to put aside Bitcoin, which was dragged on by bad reputation, to advocate the key technology behind it: the blockchain.
    The original intention of the blockchain was to act as a "scaffold" for cryptocurrency transactions. In designing Bitcoin, the inventor "Nakamoto Satoshi" aims to create a borderless virtual currency that is free from the control of any bank or government.
    But there is no third-party guarantor, how to ensure that users do not cheat, do not repeatedly use the bitcoin on hand? The way is to hand over the supervision to the entire network: all transactions will be a public log - that is, blockchain - records It is maintained by the P2P cluster (each computer is a node), and each computer has a copy of this account. As soon as the user spends Bitcoin, the nodes record the transaction and update the books.
    As a decentralized structure, it avoids single points of failure, and hacking, forging transactions, or freezing transactions for legal purposes are almost impossible.
    Satoshi Nakamoto added an organ to this system - "Mining": A certain number of transactions form a "block", which is recorded by a powerful computer (mine machine) in the account book. Miners win the bookkeeping right by solving math problems, and the problem solving method is to launch a series of random trials. This process is very power-consuming.
    At some point in 2013, an argument began to circulate: Some people said that blockchain technology should be decoupled from Bitcoin, breaking through the single use of digital currency transactions. Encrypting additional information on a cryptocurrency unit can turn it into a token, representing anything from a diamond to a title deed; this way, the blockchain can serve other purposes, become a means of verifying property rights, and can also track products The process of circulation in the supply chain. Each industry can use blockchains to transfer value or information among multiple parties, eliminating the need for middlemen. Blockchain can bring high efficiency, high transparency and security.
    Don Tapscott is a scholar and businessman and author of The Blockchain Revolution. He refers to blockchain technology as the "trust protocol." "You don't need a middleman to ensure the integrity of the parties, because the trading platform helps you achieve it," he said. "Trust is not achieved through middlemen, but through encryption, collaboration, and clever code."
    New blockchains have emerged. Banks and financial institutions - the objects that Bitcoin would have destroyed - also began experimenting with their own private books, hoping to streamline the trading of stocks and financial products.
    It was never the first-generation technology that was capable of a hit, but its second or third generation.
    A blockchain named Ethereum has gradually dominated the open source field: In 2015, Russian Canadian programmer Vitalik Buterin released Ethereum, which allows developers to program and run “go Centralized autonomous organization." These applications sell services in exchange for cryptocurrencies and adhere to automated "smart contracts" to expand self-management.
    Under the remodeling of advocates, blockchain became one of the tools for the decentralization of the Internet. The future of Facebook and Amazon will be an autonomous organization that relies on Ethereum to store user information elsewhere in the network rather than a data center in Oregon. As a result, the threat posed by cybercrime and government censorship is much smaller.
    But without waiting for the first batch of decentralized autonomous organizations to come out, this vision of the future will be shattered. In the spring of 2016, DAO, an unmanaged risk capital fund, was just on the line and it was hacked. However, more traditional start-up companies are still emerging and are determined to overcome many problems in the blockchain.
    Ethereum has a feature that allows anyone to invent and sell their own mini-currency. Recently, this function has become a kind of crowdfunding tool. Developers can only use the idea to sell their own tokens when they put forward the ideas of a certain blockchain company. They promise that on the platform to be established, these Tokens will come in handy. The first token issuance (ICO) was born and sparked an upsurge in speculation that is enough to keep the current momentum of Bitcoin recovery.
    Now, many people are asking a question: Is there any dry goods in the blockchain without speculation and investment? Given its current processing speed, it is far from being able to be used on a large scale: Currently, Ethereum can only handle about one second per second. 15 deals, compared with 2000 pennies per transaction that Visa can handle. As a verification method to maintain the slow expansion of the blockchain, the carbon emissions of the “mining” process is simply a shame. In Iceland, digging bitcoins consumes more electricity than all households in the country. Some people wondered, which of the blockchain's capabilities are, and which one is the centralized, tamper-proof digital book (the latter was born a decade ago).
    "I don't see any use cases for the blockchain; the blockchain doesn't bring anything special," said David Gerard, who is the author of "The 50-foot Blockchain Block" (Attack). A book on the 50 Foot Blockchain, skeptical of cryptocurrency. "The only use case I can think of for blockchain is cryptocurrency, and the only use of cryptocurrency is illegal trading. Even if it is used to make illegal transactions, Bitcoin has one drawback: it is too slow."
    For anarchy and libertarians such as Nakamoto Satoshi, it is extremely important for the state to intervene, but Gerrard thinks that there is no reason for the conventional companies to adopt blockchains. Others believe that this technology is not useless, it still needs time to mature. Jamie Burke is the CEO and founder of Outlier Ventures focusing on blockchain investment. He believes that in the long run, blockchain will increase the automation and transparency of several industries and promote their development. Centralized, and with the ICO model, the team behind the open source project may be able to achieve profitability. This technology is still in infants and young children, and it is no longer natural to face the obstacles of scale. "I think we will not see any significant blockchain applications for at least two or three years," he said. “But then again, being able to make a hit, never the first generation of a certain technology, is always its second or third generation. Technology popularization is such a process. The only difference is that because Bitcoin is too hot and the blockchain is very much in the spotlight when it comes to this cycle."
    Other uses of blockchain
    What can everyone use to talk about blockchain?
    In 2017, Barcelona's Catalan processions.
    To put it intriguingly, the greater use of blockchain technology is not in the commercial field but in the political field. This use is voting. The blockchain is decentralized, with strong anti-tampering capabilities and security. It can prevent fraud in online elections: Voters get their voting tokens and transfer them to an account to represent their positions. Sovereign, a non-profit organization that provides technical support from Ethereum, has proposed this initiative and tested and approved it in Estonia, but it was used for non-political purposes: Electronic voting at company shareholder meetings. Even the European Parliament uses a thin white paper that specifically discusses blockchain-based electronic voting.
    Recently, in a speech in Barcelona, ​​Bitcoin developer and anarchist Amir Taaki proposed to re-initiate the Catalan independence referendum on the Internet using blockchain technology. Base said that this approach can neutralize the oppression of the Spanish centralist government.
    Bringing the blockchain into the election may change the way we look at voting, said Michael Mainelli, president of the financial think tank Z/Yen. The blockchain may be able to fulfill "continuous voting" - weekly or Monthly vote, and "transferable vote." "The idea behind this is: I have one vote but I don't understand the topic. So, I'll give that ticket to the people who know it and let them make a choice," said Manelli. "Of course, in corporate governance, it may also come in handy."
    supply chain
    What can everyone use to talk about blockchain?
    Scanned canned tuna with the Provenance app.
    Did you wear a shirt during childbirth and did you use child labor? Is it a “sweaty diamond” on your wedding ring? Taking into account the breadth of the product involved, tracking its course in the global supply chain is not easy. Some companies believe that blockchain technology can make this simple. For example, London company Provenance uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to label canned fish or cotton to ensure that the source is ethical and safe; every step in the product journey is automatically credited to the blockchain as the product changes hands. In this way, end-users can use a mobile phone application to verify the origin of objects. According to Provenance, the company has entered into partnerships with more than 100 merchants, including major brands such as Sainsbury’s supermarkets. Its infrastructure uses the blockchain Hyperledger of Ethereum and Linux Foundation. However, founder Jessi Baker believes that the public blockchain "is still facing a long road before it can be used on a large scale." To solve this problem, some of the recording work did not rely on the blockchain to complete.
    Everledger is another London company that uses blockchains to protect the diamond supply process: each diamond is assigned a blockchain ID, and from the mine to the jeweler, each footprint is recorded. In this way, people can discover and eradicate diamonds from unknown sources - they usually come from conflict zones. So far, Everledger has handled more than 1 million diamonds.
    Finance and Payment
    What can everyone use to talk about blockchain?
    Australian board stock market board. The exchange has already used the blockchain.
    In December 2017, the Australian Securities Exchange announced the opening of blockchain technology to track shareholdings and commence equity transactions. However, its blockchain technology is very different from bitcoin or Ethereum's public accounts: it is an invitation-based private network that operates under existing laws and regulations. Although talking about the use of blockchain, people will think of the financial sector, but only to a certain extent. In almost all cases, the large banks and large financial institutions that have tried blockchain have all abandon the decentralization and mining mechanisms, preferring to create a closed, proprietary digital transaction book. Unreasonable. When companies use blockchain technology to drive real-world currency payments, the situation is similar. The Ripple payment system is an example. Banks such as Unicredit, UBS and Santander support this system. Its open source book uses tokens instead of fiat currencies, and cross-border transfers are made faster and cheaper than remittances. Ripple's agreement does not use mining, and it is rather centralized, and allows freezing of funds when it comes to legal issues. "Our mission is not to apply the blockchain to the payment sector, but to make the payment better. We only use it when the blockchain brings benefits," said Ripple Chief Technology Officer Stephen Thomas. Stefan Thomas). “The blockchain can solve the trust problem in the transaction, but at the cost of it being more costly and more difficult to coordinate. And not necessarily worthwhile: the bank will not steal money from you.”

    more + 2018-06-13
  • Common knowledge you should know before test-tube baby

    Common knowledge you should know before test-tube baby


    IVF technology is commonly known as in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer technology. Since the success of the first test-tube baby in 1978, after nearly 49 years of rapid development, it has been gradually understood by people and has become the most trusted of many infertility families. Treatment. The success rate has also been steadily increasing, and these have brought great hope to the majority of infertility patients.
    Even many patients believe that IVF technology is omnipotent and can help them achieve all their aspirations. This is obviously impossible. For these misunderstandings of infertility patients, we interviewed infertility experts at Wuhan Kangjian Women and Infants Hospital. Dean Aidan also answered these misunderstandings.
    How old can a test tube baby be?
    Some husbands and wives do not want to have children at the most suitable age because of work, economics, and lifestyle. They hope that they will be IVF in later years. The quality of female eggs is directly related to age. Owing to physiological changes after 30 years of age, ovarian function begins to decline, and the quality of eggs decreases. Whether it is natural pregnancy or test-tube baby, the success rate after 35 years old. All will fall, so it is recommended that the majority of child-bearing age couples should be pregnant as soon as conditions permit. Even if there is a problem of infertility, early treatment can be made in time.
    2, do test-tube baby can choose gender?
    Many infertility patients will ask for the gender of the baby during the hospitalization process. Normally, the IVF hospital cannot perform sex selection. Many years of childbirth data at the Center show that the ratio of males to females is almost 1:1, so IVF technology must not be used to gender selection.
    3. Do test-tube baby damage the female body?
    When referring to test-tube babies, many people think that the number of women's eggs is limited, but in the process of egg-pulling test-tube babies, one or more eggs need to be removed at one time, and the women's eggs will be used up beforehand. , thereby damaging the female body. In fact, women will have many follicles in each ovulation cycle. Ovulation stimulation technology is to mature mature eggs that are not mature in nature. Occasionally, one or two ovulation induction treatments generally do not harm the female's body.

    more + 2018-06-13
  • Learn about test-tube baby in Thailand, good single embryo transfer or multiple embryo transfer

    Learn about test-tube baby in Thailand, good single embryo transfer or multiple embryo transfer


    In Thailand, test-tube babies were made up with seven or eight embryos. Why did they only transplant one embryo? Perhaps many people have such questions. Leilei International stated that transplanting multiple embryos will increase the chance of conception, but multiple pregnancy will affect the mother's body. And the harm of the fetus, but few people care. Those mothers and fetuses who are pregnant with multiple births will face various health problems such as pregnancy-induced hypertension, hyperemesis gravidarum, placenta previa, intrauterine growth retardation, premature rupture of membranes, gestational diabetes, postpartum hemorrhage In addition to fetal transfusion syndrome, there are often preterm births that require hospitalization, and even individual preterm infants may leave some unhealthy diseases.

    more + 2018-06-13

Media Reports

  • Blockchain + Internet of Things: 2018 China Canada Plus Internet of Things and Blockchain Integration Summit Forum Successfully Held in Canada

    Blockchain + Internet of Things: 2018 China Canada Plus Internet of Things and Blockchain Integration Summit Forum Successfully Held in Canada

    April 30th (Canadian time April 29th) 2018 China-Canada Internet of Things and Blockchain Integration Summit Forum organized by China-Canada Internet of Things and Blockchain Industry Development Research Institute and Six Domain Chain Alliance in Toronto, Canada Marriott Markham held a grand ceremony. The event invited many Internet and blockchain technology experts from home and abroad to attend the conference and delivered wonderful speeches. Qian Jinqiu, the Consul General of the Consulate General of the People’s Republic of China in Toronto, Li Yanhua, Consul General of Economy and Commerce of the Chinese Consulate General in Toronto, and Chen Shengyuan, member of the Canadian Parliament, Chen Guozhi, Director of the International Trade Department of Ontario, Canada, and Hu Hejing, Member of the City of Wanjin, attended the event and discussed with the audience the new opportunities that the new technological revolution will bring.
    The Internet of Things has been hailed as the third wave of the development of the world's information industry after the Internet. As an important medium connecting the physical world and the information world, as the country's new economic growth point of strategic emerging industries, the Internet of Things industry not only has a good market efficiency, but also It is the object of competition for the technological standards of developed countries in the world.
    In this activity, the global system for the integration of IoT international standards and blockchain innovations was the first systematic public release. The international standard organization (ISO/IECSC27) Canada chairman, ISO/IECSC4 international convener Faud.A.Khan details The importance of the development and standardization of the Internet of Things and blockchain technology and the importance of implementation, Shen Jie, chief scientist of the six-domain model of the International Standard for Internet of Things and the chief scientist of the Six-Domain Chain Alliance also delivered a speech at the conference. Dr. Shen The introduction of the “6-domain model” around the top layer architecture design of the Internet of Things (IoT) explained how to quickly implement the design and landing of IoT applications for blockchain technology. He believes that “the analysis of the established IoT industry ecosystem will be possible. Deeply cut into the industry chain and various subdivisions of the industry, shattered the traditional traditional industrial processes, removed some unnecessary and unvalued links, and reconstructed key links, in particular, substantially improved the operational efficiency of the “materials”. Create new value to build a larger network of value systems, continue to empower the industry, and truly shape the Internet of Things Collaborative ecosystem. "Dr. Shen speech to things and block chain industry practitioners presence of profound inspiration.
    As early as the beginning of this year, Richard Zhou, co-chairman of the six-domain chain alliance and Canadian community leader, has prepared and set up a Canadian blockchain investment fund, established related research institutes, and conducted mergers and acquisitions of Canadian blockchain R&D technology. Accelerate the launch of Internet of Things applications and speed up the development of relevant cooperation in the field of Canadian blockchain + Internet of Things.
    In the past March, Richard Zhou was invited to meet with the academician of the Canadian Academy of Engineering, the academician of the British Royal Academy of Engineering, and Dr. Moridi, Director of the Department of Science and Innovation in Ontario, Canada. The two sides discussed the technical standards of the ISO six-domain model and the commercial value of SDChain, SDChain. In recognition of its contribution to the innovation and commercialization of the IoT blockchain, Dr. Moridi hopes SDChain will expand its business in Ontario, Canada.
    At the event, David Pan, co-chairman and CEO of the Six Domains Alliance, gave a detailed presentation on the development of the current six-domain chain and the introduction of IoT enterprise application plans in the future. It is reported that on March 13th, the six-domain chain project officially opened the first test public chain that truly used the blockchain to ensure the reliability of the Internet of Things, and it has obtained the technical cooperation cooperation requirements of several Internet of Things companies for the six domain chain, including agriculture, Industrial, smart community and logistics related IoT applications.
    David Pan announced that on May 16th, the two key businesses of Taiwan’s “Taiwan Six Domain Chain Companies” will be launched:
    Beginning in Taiwan, it provides four kinds of IoT technology application support for the six domain chain alliance members globally: DApp development, overseas circulation license based on the six domain chain public chain, no-issue chain distribution of domestic IOT companies, and overseas IoT company's sub-chain and issue of the issue.
    In order to facilitate the legal and tax-purchasing SDA pass for members of the global 6-domain chain alliance, [Taiwan 6-domain chain company] provides 11 kinds of legal currency to purchase the SDA banking channel, so that the SDA pass can be accounted for under IFRS International Financial Reporting Standards. Networked company's production inventory assets. The supported currency includes: US Dollars, Euros, Japanese Yen, British Pounds, Canadian Dollars, South African Dollars, Australian Dollars, New Zealand Dollars, Hong Kong Dollars, the Philippines, and New Taiwan Dollars.
    Because of the decentralized eco-design of the blockchain project, the development of the project is inseparable from the forces promoted by the community members. How to build and plan the community has become the topic of most concern for each project. He graduated from the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden, Lisa Liu, former head of Arm China’s IoT market and currently a six-domain chain IoT business manager, introduced the six-domain chain’s operating experience in the area of ​​community development. “We are currently committed to fostering the corporate community and building a community of developers. With the establishment of an investment community, we hope to establish a real, transparent, equal, and autonomous IoT-blockchain ecology and value system."
    The successful completion of this event has a milestone significance for the cooperation between China and Canada in the Internet of Things and blockchain technologies. From the emergence to the development of blockchain technology, it has been expanding globally, with the former six domains. The Chain and Taiwan IoT Association (TIOTA) is also jointly promoting the Internet of Things and SDChain's blockchain technology to ensure the security and reliability of data transactions.

  • "Block Chain and Social Governance" ended, and ten trends in the development of global blockchain applications were released

    On May 28, the global blockchain technology development forum "blockchain and social governance" was held in 2018. Focusing on the theme of “co-building, sharing wisdom, and sharing”, the special session will focus on discussing the evolution path and solution of blockchain in the field of social governance, thus promoting the landing of application scenarios and realizing the gradual integration of blockchain and real economy. The Botswana blockchain segment was contracted by the China Institute of Information and Communications, and co-organized by People's Daily Online, Tell Infor, and Titanium Media.
    In the past two years, blockchain technology has received increasing attention from governments, organizations and companies around the world. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the 2018 academician’s conference pointed out that the new generation of information technologies represented by blockchain, artificial intelligence, etc. has accelerated the breakthrough in application, and science and technology have never affected people’s well-being like they do today.
    According to Vice President He Guili of the China Information Technology Institute, the blockchain is an important technology and concept that affects the future development. He explained how the new technologies represented by the blockchain and the development of the digital economy have brought new momentum to economic and social development. At present, China ICT has established a team of topical blockchains, actively conducting blockchain protocol and standards research, trustworthiness and security testing, and development of practical solutions. The Trusted Blockchain Alliance led by China Information & Communication Technology Institute is gradually introducing test platforms and technical specifications. Technical standards have also received extensive support and attention from ITU.
    The forum also invited Mr. Stan Larimer, one of the three major blockchain ecosystems in the world, Mr. Stan Larimer, a Chinese American scientist, a professor of physics at Stanford University, an academician of the National Academy of Sciences, and a foreign academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is a blockchain investor. Mr. Zhang Shouyi, together with Ray Valdes, Chief Transformation Officer of ConsenSys, Julian Gordon, Vice President of Asia Pacific of Superledger (Hyperledger), Thunder Group, and CEO Chen Lei from Network Technology, etc. Innovative management methods, building a community of integrity, “community of wisdom, blockchain—building a smart city to help the real economy,” “sharing, blockchain—software-defined world, and smart to lead the future” are the keynote speeches.
    In addition, numerous industry elites, experts and scholars have conducted round-table conversations around topics such as the implementation and application of blockchain in social governance scenarios and the iteration of blockchain technology. On the same day, Director Ho Baohong of the Institute of Cloud Computing and Big Data of China’s Information and Communication Technology Institute also released “The Top Ten Trends of 2018 Global Blockchain Application Development”.
    Ten trends include:
    Blockchain technology is constantly iteratively updated, and is moving toward greater convergence.
    The development process of the blockchain industry has been accelerated and it has entered the main theme of “retreat to reality”;
    The application of blockchains is increasingly complex and the importance of cross-chain interconnections is prominent.
    The standardization of blockchains has accelerated, and countries are competing for standard setting rights;
    The diversity of blockchain privacy protection mechanisms has become a key lubricant for activating commercial applications.
    Blockchain security issues raise concerns and require urgent attention and solutions;
    The competition for intellectual property rights in blockchains is becoming increasingly fierce. All Things will expand its patent portfolio;
    The blockchain marketing campaign is predictable, allowing the business to return to full competition;
    Blockchain raises regulatory issues, but the two complement each other;
    Blockchain talent has become a key link, and all parties have stepped up efforts to cultivate.
    In 2018, blockchain technology has been continuously iteratively updated to the direction of convergence, and in terms of storage, it has evolved from a single key-value database to relational databases and distributed databases. From an eco-environment, blockchain is being combined with cloud computing to diversify service customization. The blockchain used to be primarily virtual assets or virtual currencies. The process is now accelerating and scale applications in medical care, justice, and energy are accelerating.

  • The

    The "surrogate capital" Ukraine: All economic packages have been sold out

    In 2016, 31-year-old Xi'an Liu Peng sold a house at home, raised more than one million yuan, and found a good agent to prepare for surrogacy in the United States. Before departure, he did not intend to discover that Ukraine could also legally surrogate, and the price was particularly cheap. He was tempted, "Let's go and see, the big deal is spending a ticket back and forth."
    The mother did not rest assured to accompany him to the inspection. After a flight of more than ten hours, the mother and son arrived in Kiev, capital of Ukraine, and found that it had become the "surrogate capital." The entire hotel is looking for surrogacy from all over the world, Europe, America and Australia. At that time, the Chinese were still very few.
    Liu Peng feels that this matter is reliable and he will immediately choose a surrogate VIP package in the hospital for 49,900 euros.
    One year later, the son was born. Liu Peng met three pairs of Chinese couples with their children to handle the formalities when he went to the Chinese Embassy in Ukraine to do a travel certificate for his son. In just one year, more Chinese who are planning to start surrogacy procedures are waiting in the hospital.
    01 Cabbage Price, VIP Service
    The 4.99-million-euro package is the highest level in Ukrainian hospitals. It includes not only the full costs of sperm extraction, egg retrieval, embryo transfer, and production, but also the accommodation, transportation and food costs of Liu Peng and his relatives and friends in Kiev. As long as the customer agrees to use egg donation, this is a successful package, that is, no matter how many attempts are made, the final hospital will surely allow you to return to your health-care child.
    As a VIP customer, from the plane's landing at Kiev Airport, the hospital will send a special car and a full-time driver responsible for their entire journey in Kiev, from medical treatment to excursions. They are arranged to live in a 100 to 150-square-foot suite in the city center. There are full-time nannies who are responsible for eating and drinking from 9 to 18 daily. If they think that the nanny's meal is not suitable for the taste, the hospital can also give 1200 hryvnia daily meals (about 293 yuan), with this money, customers can go to any restaurant in Kiev - Ukrainians average monthly salary only Thousands of hryvnia.
    After the child is born, the hospital will also arrange a full-time nanny to take care of the children from 9 to 18 every day. An English-speaking pediatrician will provide services 24 hours a day. Weekly pediatricians come to check up.
    After listening to the introduction, Liu Peng did not hesitate to choose this package, because it can also choose the child's gender, and "expensive, the hospital will also pay attention to it, this money is equivalent to less than 400,000 yuan, but the United States surrogate A fraction of the cost."
    At the age of 30, Liu Peng especially wanted a child. Since Thailand introduced a law prohibiting surrogacy for foreigners in 2015, he has turned his eyes on the United States. "It must be a legitimate country. If it is not legal, one can imagine how many tricks there are."
    He estimated that a surrogacy in the United States would cost between 1.2 million and 1.5 million. For him, it must be a success, and more, he can't afford it, but no one can guarantee it. “Like I met a big sister in Ukraine, she did not do it four times in the United States. Once you don’t make money again, it’s a bottomless hole. Unless you’re really very rich, but I think China’s general It's really difficult for mediocre babies to pay for American surrogacy.” Liu Peng rejoiced for his original choice. “And that big sister has succeeded in Ukraine. The technology of IVF is no longer a hi-tech technology. Domestic small clinics are doing , sometimes you have to rely on luck."
    In addition, there are two more cheaper packages, which are 29,900 euros in economic packages and 39,900 euros in the standard package, also includes all the costs during surrogacy, but also package success. They also include their accommodation in Kiev, but the area of ​​accommodation has been reduced correspondingly, there is no special car and full-time driver, and only when the medical activities are carried out to and from the hospital, you can request a car transfer. The standard package has a four-hour babysitting service every day, while the economic package does not.
    02 Economic Package has been sold out
    With the gradual tightening of surrogacy policies in Southeast Asian countries in recent years, besides the United States, Ukraine, Russia, and Georgia have become the few countries in the world that allow surrogacy.
    According to the Ukrainian Family Law, surrogacy for infertile couples is legal, and the parental status of the child is not related to surrogate mothers and donors of sperm and egg. The Ukrainian Ministry of Health issued Document No. 771 “Regulations on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology” on December 23, 2008, which regulates the contracts to be signed.
    “These three countries are similar. Their laws are inherited from the Soviet system. The overall style and price are very similar.” Liu Baojun, the chief executive of Global Surrogacy, also began to do business in these countries in the past two years. He also He wanted to invest in a hospital in these places. “Because of the long distances and language barriers, the Chinese have done very little in these places. These two years have only gradually increased. And because the Ukrainian economy is worse, the price It was originally cheaper than Russia, but in the past two years, the Chinese have gone much, and the Ukrainian price has gone up."
    This year, a Ukrainian Assisted Reproductive Hospital, Theo's Hospital announced early on that "from 2018 to 2020, all economic packages have been sold out." Other hospitals are similar. Liu Peng thinks that this is in fact a disguised price increase because there are too many Chinese people in the past two years. He heard that a client manager of a hospital can receive 70 to 80 Chinese customers a month. From the second half of last year, he also introduced the surrogate customers to Ukraine. There are now seven to eight.
    On September 17, 2017, at the QQ video conference with Chinese customers, Lieutenant Peter Paid was late. He explained that he was busy receiving more than 20 Chinese customers. “The population of China is actually higher than that of Ukraine. Too much". According to data provided by the official website of the Olympics, from 2013 to 2015, the number of Chinese people attending the hospital was stable at around 150, with a slight increase in 2016, reaching 192, and soaring to 572 in 2017. .
    In Ukraine, surrogacy is generally determined by the hospital and customers cannot choose. After confirming the surrogate mother, the client can also see the surrogate mother, but the general contact is not much. "I don't have much contact. I have a friend who has frequent contacts with surrogacy mothers, but his surrogate mother always asks him for something, which is annoying," said Liu Peng.
    After successful embryo transfer, surrogacy returns to her own home. “In the case of surrogacy, this is a job. Our surrogate mother does not live in the workshop of the factory. They live with their family members.” Li Pied explained, “30 weeks later, they will go to the hospital to provide a centralized housing. Follow all doctor's instructions."
    However, according to the BBC report in February this year, some hospitals are not very good for surrogates, and they have not detected the surrogate's physical problems in time to cause complications. In the event of an abortion, some hospitals refused to pay for surrogacy.
    Due to the influx of Chinese customers, Ukraine’s surrogacy mother has already been in short supply, and queues have appeared in various packages. In a video, Lipid said that several Spanish and German customers have paid kickbacks to client managers and want to jump in teams to give priority to initiating surrogacy procedures. The result was disqualified.
    Liu Peng also found that the surrogacy mother now comes from a farther and farther place. “They were originally in these places in or around Kiev, because at the time we chose the VIP packages. Basically the surrogates were in Kiev, and we were more than comfortable. It was almost two hours away from Kiev to take a train. Nowadays, the surrogates come to the hospital. It takes seven or eight hours to take a train. It is clear that there are fewer and fewer surrogates in Kiev."
    03 “You just go to the hospital to open a certificate”
    In fact, Liu Peng does not meet the relevant requirements of Ukrainian surrogacy legislation. He is a comrade and he must be a legal husband and wife according to Ukrainian law before he can be surrogate.
    When he first came to Ukraine in September 2016, he was not married. After paying the money to the hospital, he finished the contract and returned home. He asked a girl for help. "I just got a permit and I didn't do anything." Then she sent the marriage certificate and the contract signed by the girl to the hospital.
    "I don't know if this is a grey zone." Liu Peng heard that he can also find Ukrainians in the area to get married. During the period of surrogate to and from Ukraine, Liu Peng listened to a lot of relevant cases. He heard that at the time of marriage, the lawyers would even help them sign a divorce agreement and cooperate with the party to give up the child custody agreement. After the formalities were completed, surrogacy was started and the children were born. After completing all the formalities, they divorced again. In Ukraine, a fake marriage market has already formed. This market is not due to surrogacy. “A lot of Chinese who are doing business in Ukraine want to stay there. The best way is to find a local woman to marry. When they go there for surrogacy, they can also find the same people."
    When he took the children, Liu Peng took the legal wife to Ukraine. Because her mother was not on the court, the children could not leave Ukraine. “Now the government has checked, and the demand is even stricter. When the contract is signed, my mother must also be present.”
    In Ukraine's hospital, Liu Peng also witnessed a dispute. A Chinese couple took a child in Ukraine, but before the child was born, the couple divorced. The hospital let the surrogacy mother abortion and the contract was automatically terminated. The Chinese father of the child came to the hospital to make a fuss, but there was no result.
    In addition to the marriage certificate, surrogacy in Ukraine, but also need to provide proof of infertility, which is more simple. "If you just go to the hospital to open a certificate on the line, for example, a heart disease is not suitable for pregnancy, Ukraine is to look over there, do not need notarization." Liu Peng said.
    Ukraine also requires consigned couples to have no infectious diseases. According to Liu Peng's observations in recent years, it is not absolute. Hepatitis B customers can do some hospitals, and some hospitals can't do it. However, there are no hospitals that suffer from AIDS. According to Liu Peng, this may be because Hepatitis B has a vaccine to fight, but also can wash essence, double insurance.
    04 "I don't know if he is my child"
    Ukraine is one of the poorest countries in Europe. Surrogacy has become a source of income for many women.
    At the end of 2013, the political turmoil began in Ukraine. The economy has been severely regressed and the currency has depreciated significantly. According to the BBC, Solga Borgmoret, the head of the Ukrainian Parliament’s Health Committee, said that young women’s indulging in surrogacy is “because of the rapid decline in living standards”. She stated that the problem of the Ukrainian surrogacy industry is that it is not standardized and lacks supervision. It may place surrogacy and child's biological parents at risk.
    Many surrogate institutions in Ukraine have also exposed some bad insiders—such as unproven embryo exchanges, poor medical conditions, and too many numbers, which prevent doctors from providing adequate medical care. More and more Chinese customers, many funds from the domestic, but also began to enter the field of Ukrainian surrogacy hospitals, and even the figure of the Putian system.
    Liu Baojun took over several customers who had a dispute over surrogacy in Ukraine and Russia. "Some of them are left untouched. They may be looking for a small intermediary that does not fly, or it may not be understood by the local people. Compared with the United States, the credibility of these places is still worse."
    When he first went to Ukraine, Liu Peng was also looking for a domestic agent. When he got there, his eyes were black. "I was sold to the hospital by that intermediary. I didn't pick it up in Ukraine. I didn't care about introducing me to the hospital." Liu Peng recalled that he didn't understand Russian at all, he signed the contract in a dim way, and what happened? Can only wait for the hospital to inform, "There is no channel for what you want to ask. You can only trust. If you do not trust, you feel that you have been cheated."
    This kind of trust is just no way and it has to be believed. Liu Peng's most real feeling is that his rights and interests have no way to be effectively protected. Although he will sign an agreement, although Ukrainian law also makes detailed provisions on surrogacy, “If there is a risk problem, there is no good way. You go to fight a multinational lawsuit. Some parts of Ukraine are more corrupt, lawsuits, especially such transnational lawsuits, The chance of winning is very small."
    Liu Peng had a friend who also bought a successful VIP package for egg donation in Ukraine. However, eight embryo transfer attempts have not been successful. "Checked the chromosomes, sperm quality has been checked, no problem. Just my friend must be a boy, the hospital said that every time the quality of the boy's embryo is not as good as the girl, so no success, but no one can tell. In light of this problem, I have encountered two, and one has failed four or five times."
    They later felt that the hospital probably did not do it, but simply told them that they had not succeeded. “The hospital is patronizing new customers. Some old customers did not make it twice at a time. The hospital may give you there.” Liu Peng said, “This hospital light Chinese customer seems to go every month. More than 60, which hospital is busy and where do you come from 60 surrogate mothers?"
    Liu Peng was shocked at home for a year. The hospital will send him a B-mode bill each month. On July 31, 2017, the child was born and Liu Peng knew it the next day. When he flew to Kiev to see the child, he was even a bit blind: "I don't know whether he is my child or not. I doubt it."
    After receiving the child, Liu Peng first contacted him to do paternity test: “The hospital said to us to do a paternity test, but I don’t believe it. The hospital gave me a report. What if I lied to me?”
    Ten days later, the result came out, which proved to be Liu Peng’s child. "The feeling at that time was different, and I felt like I had kissed him much better."


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